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22
Jul 18

The global land and ocean temperature departure from average for June 2018 was the fifth highest for the month of June in the NOAA global temperature dataset record, which dates back to 1880.

 

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O clima em Junho de 2018

 

Europe had its second warmest June since continental records began in 1910 at 3.24°F above average, trailing behind 2003 by 0.16°F. Several European countries had a June temperature that ranked among the six warmest Junes on record.

 

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Temperaturas da terra e do mar no mês de Junho de 2018

 

The June average Arctic sea ice extent was the fourth smallest in the 40-year record at 405,000 square miles (9.0 percent) below the 1981-2010 average, according to an analysis by the National Snow and Ice Data Center using data from NOAA and NASA.

 

june-2018-arctic-and-antarctic-sea-ice-extent-maps

Camada de gelo cobrindo o Ártico e a Antártida em Junho de 2018

 

Antarctic sea ice extent during June was 190,000 square miles (3.8 percent) below the 1981-2010 average, the eighth smallest June extent on record. Antarctic sea ice expanded at a rate faster than average during June, and by the end of the month, the daily sea ice extent was near average.

 

(artigo/inglês/excerto e imagens: noaa.gov)

publicado por Produções Anormais - Albufeira às 19:48

30
Abr 13

1,000 degrees hotter than previously thought

(Jennifer Kingson – nytimes.com)

 

The different layers of the Earth and their representative temperatures: crust, upper and lower mantle (brown to red), liquid outer core (orange) and solid inner core (yellow). The pressure at the border between the liquid and the solid core (highlighted) is 3.3 million atmospheres, with a temperature now confirmed as 6000 degrees Celsius.



Scientists have determined the temperature near the Earth's centre to be 6000 degrees Celsius, 1000 degrees hotter than in a previous experiment run 20 years ago. These measurements confirm geophysical models that the temperature difference between the solid core and the mantle above, must be at least 1500 degrees to explain why the Earth has a magnetic field. The scientists were even able to establish why the earlier experiment had produced a lower temperature figure. The results are published on 26 April 2013 in Science.

 

The research team was led by Agnès Dewaele from the French national technological research organization CEA, alongside members of the French National Center for Scientific Research CNRS and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF in Grenoble (France).

 

The Earth's core consists mainly of a sphere of liquid iron at temperatures above 4000 degrees and pressures of more than 1.3 million atmospheres. Under these conditions, iron is as liquid as the water in the oceans. It is only at the very centre of the Earth, where pressure and temperature rise even higher, that the liquid iron solidifies. Analysis of earthquake-triggered seismic waves passing through the Earth, tells us the thickness of the solid and liquid cores, and even how the pressure in the Earth increases with depth. However these waves do not provide information on temperature, which has an important influence on the movement of material within the liquid core and the solid mantle above. Indeed the temperature difference between the mantle and the core is the main driver of large-scale thermal movements, which together with the Earth's rotation, act like a dynamo generating the Earth's magnetic field. The temperature profile through the Earth's interior also underpins geophysical models that explain the creation and intense activity of hot-spot volcanoes like the Hawaiian Islands or La Réunion.

 

(imagem e texto: Jennifer Kingson – nytimes.com)

publicado por Produções Anormais - Albufeira às 15:10

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